[From Perfect English Grammar.com]
When do we use reported speech? Sometimes someone says a sentence, for example "I'm going to the cinema tonight". Later, maybe we want to tell someone else what the first person said.
We use a 'reporting verb' like 'say' or 'tell'. If this verb is in the present tense, it's easy. We just put 'she says' and then the sentence:
We don't need to change the tense, though probably we do need to change the 'person' from 'I' to 'she', for example. We also may need to change words like 'my' and 'your'.
(As I'm sure you know, often, we can choose if we want to use 'that' or not in English. I've put it in brackets () to show that it's optional. It's exactly the same if you use 'that' or if you don't use 'that'.)
But, if the reporting verb is in the past tense, then usually we change the tenses in the reported speech:
To read more about reported speech from Perfect English Grammar.com, click here.
To practice using reported speech, click on here.
Apostrophes are used to show possession. However, you do not use an apostrophe after a possessive pronoun such as my, mine, our, ours, his, hers, its, their, or theirs. For example:
Read more at http://grammar.yourdictionary.com/grammar-rules-and-tips/5-most-common.html#FVgk9FeOQezHUWZP.99
Want to improve your writing? Well, there are some common errors that you might want to look for as your revise and edit your writing. Here's the first one:
Error #1: Run-on Sentence or Comma Splice
A run-on sentence is a sentence that joins two independent clauses without punctuation or the appropriate conjunction. A comma splice is similar to a run-on sentence, but it uses a comma to join two clauses that have no appropriate conjunction.
Fixing a run-on sentence or a comma splice can be accomplished in one of five different ways:
Read more at http://grammar.yourdictionary.com/grammar-rules-and-tips/5-most-common.html#o5Fs1qJqOhAfoKRB.99
Comma splice errors are very common mistakes, but they can be easily avoided. How?
First, anytime you use a comma in your writing, you should be ask yourself, "Why?" In other words, think about why you are using that comma. What is the rule for its usage?
Second, if you are editing or reviewing your writing, look for commas found in the middle of a sentence. When you find one, review the sentence carefully to see if you have an independent (or main) clause on either side of the comma. If you have an independent clause on both sides, and you do not have a conjunction joining them (like: and, but, or, nor, for,so), then you have yourself a genuine comma slice error.
It may look like this: I went to the store this morning, I bought some milk.
A careful review of the sentence above should result in the conclusion that there are two independent clauses presented, one on either side of the comma. This is a comma splice error.
To read more about comma splice errors, click here.
To practice identifying comma splice errors, click on the links below.
Comma Splice Practice #1
Comma Splice Practice #2
Comma Splice Practice #3
My name is Craig, and I've been teaching English for many years. I initially created this site for my students, but all English learners are welcome. I hope you find something helpful to you. Feel free to leave suggestions or ideas in the Comments section under any entry.